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Michelangelo (1475–1564), an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance, was born in the Republic of Florence. His work, inspired by classical antiquity, left an indelible mark on Western art. Michelangelo's versatility in various artistic fields, alongside his contemporary Leonardo da Vinci, epitomizes the Renaissance ideal. His notable works include the Pietà and David, sculpted before he turned thirty, and the iconic frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. He also pioneered Mannerist architecture with his design of the Laurentian Library and contributed to the completion of St. Peter's Basilica. Praised as "the divine one" during his lifetime, Michelangelo's expressive style influenced subsequent artists and contributed to the Mannerist movement in Western art.

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