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Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance, renowned as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect. While initially famed for his painting, his notebooks, containing drawings and notes on various subjects, reveal his genius across disciplines. He epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal and his works, matched only by Michelangelo, continue to inspire admiration. Notable for his paintings like the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, Leonardo's technological innovations included designs for flying machines, armored vehicles, and solar power, though many remained unrealized during his lifetime. Despite limited direct impact on science, his discoveries in anatomy, engineering, and optics are revered.

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